Answer the questions and answers one paragraph essay

The Industrial Revolution

  What was it?

  How did it affect design?

  Who were some of the early designers who used industry to better their products?

  Why was steam technology important?


The Great Exhibition of 1851

  What was the purpose of this exhibition?

  Who were some of the organizers?

  What was the building like? Why was itimportant?

  How did the idea of “Empire” manifest itself at the exhibition?

  What was displayed there? Did everyone approve ofit?


American Design

  What are some of the styles that inspired American designers in the 19th century? Would you say that this was a homogenous style or one that relied on many influences?

  Be prepared to name some of the different design movements (Renaissance Revival, etc.).


Design Reform

  How did some designers react to the exhibits at the Crystal Palace?

  What were some of the ways that design reformers demonstrated their opposition to the machine produced goods on display?

  Why did Ruskin and Pugin advocate the Gothic as a period to emulate?

  How did William Morris put some of Ruskin’s ideas into practice in his own work?


Art Nouveau

  What were some of the design inspirations for Art Nouveau?

  Why was the poster so important at this time? What were some of the innovations in printing?

  Consider the role of women and plant imagery in Art Nouveau design



  What were some of the influences and projects of Margaret Macdonald and Charles Mackintosh?



The Bauhaus

  What was the philosophy of the BH?

  What was the difference between the school in Weimar and the school in Dessau?

  Were these differences always clear in the designs?

  Who were some of the notable designers from the school?

  What was the Frankfurt kitchen and why is it important?


Art Deco

  What was the big exhibition of Art Deco and why is it important? (Art Deco continued…)

  How does the idea of the exotic influence art deco design?

  Was this an exclusive style?





  Queen Victoria


  The Great Exhibition of 1851

  Joseph Paxton

  Henry Cole

  “False Principles”

  The Indian Court

  The Medieval Court

  The Basic American periods— neoclassical, gothic revival, rococo revival

  Charles Rennie Mackintosh

  Margaret MacDonald

  Art Nouveau—the new art



  Walter Gropius

  Art and industry a new unity!

  Art and technology a new unity!

  Bauhaus Weimar

  Bauhaus Dessau

  Economy of form/economy of materials

  Design Reformers:

  AWN Pugin

  John Ruskin—The Nature of the Gothic

  William Morris

  Arts and Crafts



On the exam you will be given a choice of the following five essay questions. You will be required to answer ONE question.


1.  Throughout the 19th Century, and into the 20th Century, designers, critics, and tastemakers, ranging from AWN Pugin, to John Ruskin, to William Morris to Walter Gropius, have looked to the Middle Ages as a source of inspiration. Using at least four examples, please discuss.


2.  Discuss the role of industrialization in the development of 19th and 20th Century design. What were the effects on labor practices, industrial design, efficiency, ornament, etc. Please use at least four examples.


3.  Using at least four examples, please highlight the differences between the Weimar and the Dessau Bauhaus.


4.  Discuss the life and work of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. What were some his philosophies, ideas, projects? Please use at least fourexamples.


5.  Using at least four examples, discuss the influences of “the exotic” on Art Deco.

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