Nu560-8d week3 discussion3-1 reply1 | Nursing homework help


Topic: Chronic psychosocial Stress and Hypertension

“Genetic and behavioral factors do not fully explain the development of hypertension, and there is increasing evidence suggesting that psychosocial factors may also play an important role. Exposure to chronic stress has been hypothesized as a risk factor for hypertension, and occupational stress, stressful aspects of the social environment, and low socioeconomic status have each been studied extensively” (Spruill, 2010, p.10).

  • Describe the participant protections provided by the researchers for participants. Participant protection provided was presenting the stressors in a lab, and not the real world.  The participants were then taught ways to cope.
  • How were the participants selected? How might this impact ethical principles within the study? A cross sectional analysis of 2612 participants from 495 neighborhoods was done to choose the participants. The participants were chosen from people who were included in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. The participants were people experiencing low socioeconomic status, racial discrimination, and occupational stress which could impact ethical principles.
  • Would the participants in this study be considered “vulnerable”? Why or why not? Yes, because the participant with bp issues is forced to confront stressors in a lab.   For example, African Americans living in the US suffer from higher rates of hypertension than whites and reasons remain poorly understood, (Spruill, 2010, p.12).  One aspect is that African Americans demonstrate elevated bp to race related lab stressors such as listening to audiotapes and watching videotapes of racist scenarios or recall of personal experiences.  Evidence showed that reactivity is influenced the degree to which the subjects attribute to race-related discrimination, (Spruill, 2010, p.12).
  • Were participants subjected to any physical harm or discomfort or psychological distress as part of the study? What efforts did the researchers make to minimize harm and maximize good? Yes, they were forced to confront the stressor being studied, whereas in real life, they probably tried their best to avoid certain stressors. The participants were taught interventions to help reduce blood pressure such as muscle relaxation, biofeedback, meditation, and other coping mechanisms.
  • Does the report discuss steps that were taken to protect the privacy and confidentiality of study participant? There is a disclosure note: Disclosure No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

“Much of the work to date regarding effects of rumination on BP has used laboratory stressors; though this approach is useful and important, the artificiality of the situation limits the generalizability of results to the real world. Response to laboratory stressors may be a poor indicator of the degree to which people ruminate about real-life stressors. Further, in the laboratory, the participant is forced to confront the stressor being studied, whereas in the field, the person may use various strategies (eg, distraction) to avoid such engagement. Thus, an important next step in evaluating rumination as a possible mechanism by which stress contributes to hypertension is to observe the effects of naturally occurring stressors on ruminative thoughts and BP outside the laboratory” (Spruill, 2010, p.14).

Spruill, T. M. (2010). Chronic psychosocial stress and hypertension. Current Hypertension Reports, 12(1), 10-6. doi:

(2refences required)

University Writings
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.


Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.


Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.


Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.