Humanities exam 1 questions | World history homework help

Question 1

What was the Medieval model of the Universe?



They believed the universe was completely flat

None of the above

Question 2

Who developed the heliocentric theory?

Nicholaus Copernicus

Tycho Brahe



Question 3

What was the Starry Messenger?

A popular science journal created by Galileo to spread scientific ideas.

The manual early modern universities used to teach students astronomy

Kepler’s book designed to teach people astrology – the reading of the stars to predict the future

A medieval text describing the geocentric theory

Question 4

What was the most important question facing the Estates General in the months before it met?  

Whether the commoners would be included at all

Whether the clergy and the nobility would work together

How the estates would vote

Whether the Third Estate would be able to wear their hats in front of the king

Question 5

Who was the king of France during the French Revolution?

Charles X

Peter the Great

Philibert VI

Louis XVI

Question 6

What did Caesare Beccaria argue in On Crimes and Punishments?

He argued that current systems of European justice were barbaric

He argued that people should not be considered guilty of a crime before they are tried

Torture should not be used to achieve confessions

All of the above

Question 7

What foreign war did France engage in that contributed to its own revolution?

The English Civil War

The American Civil War

The American Revolution

The Thirty Years War

Question 8

What was the Estates-General?

It was an assembly made up of representative of nobles, clergy and commoners that the French king called in 1789 to help deal with the crises France was facing

It was an assembly that represented landed estate owners in France and allowed them to petition the king

It was an assembly that brought together both poor and wealthy farmers to control prices to assure that farmers got good prices for their products

It was the small group of men chosen by the king to be his advisor

Question 9

John Locke is known for promoting what Enlightenment idea?

The only appropriate government was a direct democracy in which everyone voted on every governmental decision

If a government fails to protect the natural rights of its citizens, they legitimately have the right to overthrow that government

Absolute monarchy is the best form of government because it preserves social order

He favored dictatorships because they provided clear rules and punishments for their people

Question 10

In June of 1789, the Third Estate made a radical decision by claiming that they were the representatives of the nation.  How did they do this?

They voted to abolish the monarchy and create a republic

They declared themselves to be the National Assembly

They attacked the first and second estates and threw them out of Versailles

They created a constitution for France

Question 11

What was the Bastille and what was its significance?

It was a notorious prison were political prisoners had historically been kept

It was an arms deposit where the French army kept most of its weapons

It was an insane asylum

None of the above

Question 12

Why did the French king not use his troops to crush both the National Assembly and the Paris rioters in 1789? 

He disliked the idea of using force against his own people

The army was already fighting wars in other places and he didn’t have enough troops in Paris

He wasn’t sure he had the loyalty of his troops

He was afraid that violence by troops would strengthen the Revolution further

Question 13

How did French women respond to the king’s refusal to accept the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen?

They sent a cahier de doleance asking him to reconsider his decision

The stormed the Bastille  

They marched to Versailles to meet him and demand that the reconsider

They tried to hold an election and vote for a new king

Question 14

The Constitution of 1791 established active and passive citizens.  What was the difference between the two? 

Active citizens could vote and passive citizens could not

All men were active citizens and women were passive citizens

Revolutionaries could vote while those against the revolution could not

Nobles were not allowed to vote

Question 15

In June of 1791, Louis XVI made a decision that not only turned people further against him but made people believe he was a traitor.  What did he do?

He tried to escape from France

He gave a speech condemning the Revolution

He publicly made fun of revolutionary symbols

He sent a letter to the British asking them to come and put down the Revolution

Question 16

Why did France declare war on Austria in April of 1792?

The National Assembly feared that Austria was fixing to invade France and France wanted to strike first

Austria had  resources that France needed but it refused to trade with France so France invaded

Marie Antoinette had taken refuge in Austria and France wanted to bring her back to punish her

None of the above

Question 17

What committee did Robespierre head?

The Committee of the National Convention

The Committee of Public Safety

The Department of Homeland Security

The Society of Revolutionary Republican Women

Question 18

How did Robespierre/the Committee of Public Safety try to change French culture? 

He instituted a new French calendar

He undertook a campaign of dechristianization

He created the cult of the Supreme Being

All of the above

None of the above

Question 19

How did Napoleon start to restore order to France?

He made peace with the Catholic Church

He briefly ended the wars France was fighting in Europe

He gave France a new constitution with universal suffrage

All of the above

Question 20

What did Napoleon create that is considered one of his most important long-term domestic successes in France?  

He created a new system to hold elections

He developed a new Civil Law Code

He set up a new system of courts

He created a university system

Question 21

What system did Napoleon use to try to defeat Britain after a direct invasion attempt failed?

He tried to shut off all trade between Britain and the Continent

He attacked the British colonies, especially India

He defeated the British in Egypt

He never wanted to defeat Britain but preferred to form an alliance instead

Question 2

What happened to Napoleon after he was defeated for a second time at Waterloo in 1815?

He was exiled to the island of St. Helena

He was executed by a coalition of British, Austrian, and Prussian forces

He was imprisoned in France forever

He was exiled to Elba

Question 23

Which of the following statements best applies to urban life in the early nineteenth century?

Government intervention worked to prevented food contamination in factories

Horrible sanitary conditions were made worse by city authorities slow response to take responsibility for public health

Governments quickly began to regulate industry to protect the lives and health of workers

Conditions in the countryside improved dramatically as electricity was introduced into their homes

Question 24

Samuel Smiles wrote a book entitled Self-Help. What advice did he offer to people living in poverty?

He suggested that the poor form unions and mutual aid societies to demand better wages

He suggested that governments create work assistance programs and job training programs so the poor could gain skills and get better jobs 

He suggested that the poor work harder and learn to save their money rather than wasting it on immoral leisure activities

He suggested that people not have so many children

Question 25

Herbert Spencer developed what concept?

Social Contract

Social Darwinism



Question 26

Where did Charles Darwin do much of his research which led to his theory of evolution?




Galapagos Islands

Question 27

Why did Europeans want to control Africa and Asia?

Having colonies gave them access to raw materials

They wished to “civilize” these other parts of the world

Having colonies gave them status in Europe and made them seem powerful

All of the above

None of the above

Question 28

Liberals in Europe preferred what kind of economic system?


Laissez-faire (free market capitalism)

Strict government control

Economics directed by unions

Question 29

Which of the following did people ask for in “The Third Estate of a French City Petitions the King?”



Equal taxes

Equal income for all people

End of the monarchy

Question 30

What criticism did Galileo level at people who refused to consider the heliocentric theory?

They failed to properly understand the Bible

They were slaves to the thoughts of others

They condemned Copernicus’s ideas without really understanding them

All of the above

A and C

Question 31

Which of the following arguments did Francis Bacon make to encourage people to look beyond Aristotle for scientific discoveries?

You might not be as smart as Aristotle on the whole but everyone has strengths that can allow them to surpass Aristotle in certain areas

Aristotle never wrote about science and never meant for his writings to be considered scientific in nature

Bacon argues that Aristotle made up information therefore his ideas can’t be trusted

Aristotle wasn’t Christian so he couldn’t be trusted to make the kind of scientific discoveries God wanted people to make

Question 32

According to Immanuel Kant, what held people back from becoming enlightened?

People are lazy

People fear new ideas

Enlightenment required freedom and most people didn’t have freedom 

All of the above

B and C

Question 33

Which of the following represented Voltaire’s ideas about religion?

He believed that religion could act as a positive force in people’s lives if it were separated from violent denominations

He accepted Christianity overall but felt it had been twisted by the Catholic Church

He saw Christianity primarily as a violent superstition that would eventually be destroyed by reason

He thought Christianity could be saved if it were separated from older forms of pagan superstition

Question 34

What were cahiers de doléances?

Special privileges granted to aristocrats by the king?

Specific demands for fair taxes made by the Third Estate

Louis XVI’s response to the creation of the National Assembly 

List of recommendations made by people throughout France about reforming the government

Question 35

How did Emmanuel Sieyès feel about the French nobility?

He believed the nobility vital to provide continuity to the French nation in the midst of the changes of the revolution

He supported the Second Estate but believed the First Estate should be eliminated

He saw the nobility as being a burden to the nation and weakening it

He didn’t write about the Second Estate at all, his focus was on the importance of the Third Estate

Question 36

What did Alexis de Tocqueville cite as the cause of the French Revolution?

Once the American Revolution broke out, it was inevitable that revolutionary ideas would catch on in France given the inequalities built into their absolutist system

The ideas promoted by France’s many political philosophers matched the injustices people were experiencing, which allowed revolutionary ideas to take hold in France

The Old Regime in France refused to reform itself, which left revolution as the only means of change

The French prefer revolution as a means of action  

B and C

A and D

Question 37

What is political liberty according to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen?

Liberty occurred when the government freed people from the bonds of poverty by assuring a reasonable standard of living for all people

Liberty was the ability to do anything that did not harm someone else

Liberty was applying a set of laws to all people

None of the above

Question 38

What did Mary Wollstonecraft believe would make the most significant change in women’s lives?

Granting women equal political rights with men

Encouraging women to become politicians

Providing women with equal access to high-quality education and equal access to jobs

Valorizing women’s roles as mothers

Question 39

Which demand did the Society of the Friends of Blacks make?

The wanted to abolish the slave trade

They wanted to abolish slavery in all French territories

They wanted to educate slaves to accept their position as slaves and work harder

They argued for the immediate end of all slavery everywhere

Question 40

When Jews asked for the right to become citizens in January 1790, what argument did they make?  

Religion should not determine a person’s rights

Jews were hard workers so should be allowed to be citizens

Other countries had made Jews citizens

None of the above

Question 41

Why did Maximilien Robespierre believe that terror was the only way to create a perfect state in France?

Terror would radicalize people in favor of liberty and justice, it would create more participation in the political system

Fear of death would make people more creative in their development of new laws and governmental systems

Terror would eliminate enemies to the revolution and purify the French nation

Terror would keep the most radical elements of the revolution happy and allow it to continue

Question 42

What actions against counterrevolutionaries did General Turreau describe to the Minister of War in January 1794?

Mass murder to eliminate anyone suspected of being against the Revolution

A press campaign to educate people about the benefits of the Revolution

An education program in schools to encourage children to support the Revolution

A careful legal process designed to try counterrevolutionaries in court

Question 43

Napoleon promised his troops glory, honor and wealth.  What did he demand of them in return, at least early in this career as a military leader?

They had to accept Napoleon’s own political philosophy

They had to completely reject monarchism

They had to treat conquered people with mercy and bring them liberty

None of the above

Question 44

What is laissez-faire economics?

Economic policy that promotes very little government intervention in the economy

Economic policy that calls for significant government intervention to promote the public good

Economic policy that encourages government to provide school, healthcare and security but nothing else

All of the above

Question 45

How did Thomas Malthus feel about helping the poor?

As a Protestant minister, he believed helping the poor was central to the Christian mission

He believed that governments should focus on providing poor people with skills to help them bring themselves out of poverty

He opposed helping the poor because it would cause population to rise more quickly and bring about disease or famine

He believed that eventually Britain would become wealthy enough to allow the government  to provide basic necessities to all people

Question 46

How did Houston Steward Chamberlain feel about racial mixing?

He believed that racial mixing combined the best traits of different races and created stronger people

He believed that racially pure people were strongest but thought that limited, carefully controlled mixing could sometimes be beneficial

He opposed all race mixing in all circumstances

He believed that Europeans paid too much attention to the idea of race mixing arguing instead that a person’s culture had a greater impact on their abilities

Question 47

How did Hermann Ahlwardt see Jews as different from other Germans?

He saw Jews racially different from other Germans.  Jews didn’t integrate into the nation, and they took advantage of the goodwill of other Germans

The Jewish faith set Jews apart.  They did not accept the basic tenants of Christianity so could not be trusted

Jews brought Eastern European culture into Germany thereby diluting German culture and institutions

He opposed all immigrants, including Jews, and wanted to close Germany’s borders to all immigrants in general

Question 48

What did Joseph Chamberlain argue with respect to British colonization?

Colonization was too expensive.  The British should only maintain a few colonies that were most profitable

He wanted to keep India and Egypt as colonies but hoped the British would pull out of Africa because conditions were too harsh

He saw expanded colonization as critical to the continued prosperity of England and the happiness of native people in colonized lands

He wanted colonies to compete with the growing power of the United States

Question 49

In Karl Pearson’s mind, what drove humans toward progress?

A struggle between races and nations that allowed the strongest to dominate and eliminated the weak

Technological advances that would eventually eliminate racial distinctions between people

Evolution and racial mixing that will gradually lead to one race

All of the above

Question 50

What did Charles Darwin argue in his book, The Descent of Man?

Domesticated animals offered a useful model for understanding how accumulated changes gradually led to new species

Humans had altered their environment so much that they no longer experienced evolution like other animals

Humans evolved from lower species just like all other animals

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